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 Our Heritage 

To understand the full scope and potential of PrimoCure Pharma, Inc., as well as the vast potential for KoDiscovery Anticancer Technology (KAT) as a therapeutic drug for pancreatic and other orphan cancers, it is necessary to take a step back to understand the roots of our heritage. First and foremost, PrimoCure Pharma is the sister c-corporation to Dr. Ko's first company, KoDiscovery, LLC, which was established as her research laboratory. Her groundbreaking discovery in 2000 of the unmatched potential for 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) to rapidly kill cancer cells was followed by years of her painstaking research and development to carefully determine the optimum formulation, dosage, protocols and routes of administration that are safe and effective for human and animal use. Additionally, she has now successfully received numerous worldwide patents for KAT to treat multiple cancers using various routes of administration, to potentially treat up to 95% of all cancers. 

Through Dr. Ko's past research, vision and dedication paired with her groundbreaking work completed through KoDiscovery, LLC, the goal of developing the first FDA-approved pancreatic cancer drug  has an excellent chance of now being achieved. After successfully receiving FDA marketing approval of KAT for pancreatic cancer, PrimoCure Pharma may continue to be the means by which Dr. Ko will fulfill her vision to become the world leader in research, development and treatment of a majority of all cancers, including orphan and rare cancers.

Key Advantages of KAT


  • Due to its small molecular and chemical structure, the mode of action is well understood as evidenced by a wealth of data from global research by third parties to validate its efficacy. 

  • It is effective in modulating abnormal and/or pathological cells such as cancer cells and pathogenic organisms. Therefore, it can be effectively used as an anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic agent.

  • It can be administered to effectively treat up to 95% of various solid and liquid cancer types.

  • Multiple studies have demonstrated that KAT can preferentially and effectively kill cancer stem cells, which can reduce, and possibly prevent the metastatic spread of existing cancers.

  • It is not only a metabolism-based therapy but also an immunotherapy which can activate and help white blood cells to enhance immunological responses.

  • It can be combined with existing standard-of-care therapies such as surgeries, radiotherapies, and chemotherapies.

  • The method of entry into the cell minimizes cytotoxicity to normal cells and can be used in vivo.

  • It is also effective against aggressive cancers since they ferment more glucose

  • It is non-mutagenic

  • It does not induce drug resistance as 3BP is not a substrate for multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins

  • It is a suicidal molecule which destroys itself after killing cancer cells

  • It can be effectively delivered through multiple routes of administration according to the cancer type and individual patient need.

  • It can also be combined with alternative therapies such as oxygen therapy, heat therapy, traditional acupuncture and others.

Below you may follow brief summaries of Dr. Ko's progress from her preclinical studies, animal and human case studies, the start of her first clinical trial and current plans through PrimoCure Pharma. You will also have access to many published studies validating her research and discoveries. Through this progression you will come to more fully understand the strengths of Dr. Ko's KAT formulation and the vast potential it promises for the treatment of the majority of cancers across the globe. 

First Preclinical Study

Dr. Ko's first preclinical study was more successful than anyone could have imagined. This mouse model seeded 34 mice with hepatocellular carcinoma with 19 mice treated with 3BP and 15 untreated mice serving as controls. All 19 treated mice were completely cured and lived out a normal lifespan, while all 15 controls had to be euthanized. 
Second Preclinical Study

Though the second preclinical study does not appear to be as dramatic or spectacular as the first, that understanding is far from true. In many ways, Dr. Ko feels that the significance of the second study was critical for her to validate the safety and potential toxicology of KAT ultimately for human use. 
Third Preclinical Study

This preclinical study was in partnership with the University of Maryland in 2018 and tested KAT’s effectiveness in conjunction with Radiation Therapy (RT). These results have been particularly exciting, as it was designed to explore the effect of 3BP on tumor growth in non-small cell lung cancer. 
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First Human to Receive 3BP

This photograph of the first recipient of 3BP for cancer, Yvar Verhoeven, in this Case Report was poised with the novel anticancer agent, 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) and his favorite legendary immortal bird, phoenix. The picture was taken on his 18th birthday, September 09, 2009, at his home in the Netherlands, after his 7th treatment with 3BP. This was a very special day as he had been told that he would never make it to his 17th birthday. 

Human Case Study - Melanoma

This sequence of photos are of a 70 Y/O Male with Melanoma. In 2017, a biopsy was taken of his forehead growth and while waiting for results, the patient began applying a KAT-soaked gauze daily to the open wound. The biopsy revealed it was melanoma and a follow up surgery was scheduled. However, when wound site was reopened, the melanoma was completely gone. This patient has been observed for five years with no evidence of recurrence. 
99 Year Old Male - Bladder Cancer

Charles Phelps was diagnosed with bladder cancer in February 2018. His biopsy was delayed for several reasons, but showed high grade, aggressive urothelial cancer. The initial PET scan before KAT treatments began showed 3 areas in the bladder and one area in his lung. After bladder wash treatments were given, the PET scan showed his bladder was clear but there were three areas in his lung. After I.V. treatments along with bladder washes, the third PET scan showed only one area still visible in the lung but that area had reduced in size. This case demonstrates the clear safety of KAT in that it can be administered both in I.V. and bladder wash formulas for someone at almost 100 years of age. It would be very unlikely that Charles could have survived traditional chemotherapy or other toxic cancer treatments at his age. However,  thanks to his KAT therapy, Charles remains alive and healthy today at 103 years of age. 
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Canine Report Cooper Hawk
March 5, 2022

This case report was submitted by Don McLean DVM at 965 Crockett Ridge Road, Norway, Me. 04268. Dr. McLean used only a 4-month, oral KAT treatment regimen for Cooper Hawk, a 13-year old male Alaskan Husky and reported a complete cure of Cooper's hard fixed sarcoma on midline of his proximal chest. 

Canine Case Study Report

18 April 2022

This canine case study involved treating a dog (Chippy, 12 year-old spayed female Alaskan Husky) with IT injections for an anal sac adenocarcinoma. The formal cancer diagnosis was made in early August 2021 by Dr. B. Walker, DVM (Cape Horn Pet Clinic, Northumberland, NH). The dog received treatments that spanned an 8-month period (July 14, 2021 - March 8, 2022).

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Hepatocellular Carcinoma - First KAT Clinical Trial
Embarking on its first success developing innovative anticancer therapeutics, in 2013, PrimoCure Pharma, Inc. received an FDA Orphan Drug Designation for KoDiscovery Anticancer Technology (KAT) to treat hepatocellular carcinoma. Moving forward from there, in May of 2019, assigning rights through its sister company, KoDiscovery LLC, closed a Licensing Agreement with NewG Lab Pharma, Inc. (NGLP) for the development and commercialization of KAT for hepatocellular carcinoma. In the fourth quarter of 2021, NewG Lab Pharma received an FDA Investigational New Drug approval to begin a unique phase I/ II(a) clinical trial for hepatocellular carcinoma. This clinical trial will consist of three treatment arms with each group receiving an appropriate therapeutic dose of KAT administered via oral, intratumoral, or oral & intratumoral combined. The phase I clinical trial was initiated in the last quarter of 2022 in South Korea with phase II projected to begin in the U.S. in 2023 or 2024. 

We will provide updates on the status of the hepatocellular carcinoma clinical trial as we are given authorization, so please connect with us through our email list or Contact Page. 


Breakthrough Study 3-Bromopyruvate Anti-cancer Agent









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Glucose Catabolism in Rat Liver Tumors













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Targeting Cancer Cell's Power Plants with 3BP













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Additional research articles are available by clicking on the Titles below: 

"The HK2 Dependent “Warburg Effect” and Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation in Cancer:
Targets for Effective Therapy with 3-Bromopyruvate"

"Mitochondrial bound type II hexokinase: a key player in the growth and survival of many cancers
and an ideal prospect for therapeutic intervention"

"Hexokinase II: Cancer’s double-edged sword acting as both facilitator and
gatekeeper of malignancy when bound to mitochondria"

"A translational study “case report” on the small molecule “energy blocker” 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) as
a potent anticancer agent: from bench side to bedside"

"Hexokinase-2 bound to mitochondria: Cancer’s stygian link to the “Warburg effect”
and a pivotal target for effective therapy"

"The pivotal roles of mitochondria in cancer: Warburg and beyond and
encouraging prospects for effective therapies"

"3-Bromopyruvate: A novel antifungal agent against the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans"

"The anticancer agent 3-bromopyruvate: a simple but powerful molecule taken from the lab to the bedside"

"Transport and cytotoxicity of the anticancer drug 3-bromopyruvatein the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae"

"Glutathione may have implications in the design of 3-bromopyruvate treatment protocols for both fungal and algal infections as well as multiple myeloma"

"Killing multiple myeloma cells with the small molecule3-bromopyruvate: implications for therapy"

"Screening the yeast genome for energetic metabolism pathways involved in a phenotypic response to the anti-cancer agent 3-bromopyruvate"

"Transport of 3-Bromopyruvate across the human erythrocyte membrane" Scientific Contributions by Dr. Ko
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